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International Businesses and Management英國essay:“退出歐盟”的影響The

時間:2019-04-10 15:09來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:本文是一篇International Businesses and Management專業的英國essay,主要講述的是從短期和中期來看,從歐盟轉移可能會在全球地緣政治和經濟潛力結構中崛起,在歐盟、美國、中國、俄羅斯、印

導讀:本文是一篇International Businesses and Management專業的英國essay,主要講述的是從短期和中期來看,從歐盟轉移可能會在全球地緣政治和經濟潛力結構中崛起,在歐盟、美國、中國、俄羅斯、印度等主要國家之間具有更大的戰略活動空間。國際貿易也將從中受益。然而,從長遠來看,從歐盟撤軍會損害與其他國家的關系。

1.0 Introduction介紹
正確理解國際關系應從“國際關系”的概念入手。關于國際關系的定義,人們有許多想法和看法。根據權威觀點,漢斯·摩根索認為,國際關系是國家間的權力斗爭關系,其本質是政治權力(威廉斯引用,2004)。因此,研究國際關系具有重要意義,這是世界體系中的重要關系。本文以英國最近發生的“歐盟轉移”事件為研究對象,探討其對個人、國際關系、國際貿易和國際發展的影響。
The correct understanding of international relations should start with the concept of "international relations". There are a great number of thought and opinions about the definition of international relations. And according to authoritative ideas, Hans Morgenthau thinks that the international relations are the relationship among nations in the struggle for power, and the essence of which is the political power (cited in Williams, 2004). Therefore, the study of international relations is important, which is pointed to be the important relationship in the world system. The article focuses on the recent event of “moving from EU” of Britain and discusses its effects on the individual, international relationships and international trade and international development.  
2.0 Literature Review文獻綜述
2.1 Basic theories基本理論
現實主義是指我們對事物的理解和感知,而事物獨立于我們內心之外事物的實際存在,它也與事物相同。一般說來,現實主義關心現實,實際上反對唯心主義。杰克·唐納利(1993,第85頁)指出,現實主義不僅不能提供一般的理論,而且它基本上是不一致的,現實主義者在對同一事件的解釋上往往是不一致的。由于同一問題的現實性正在發生變化,當然,這種解釋與現實主義是不一樣的,否則就不是現實主義。現實主義在一般理論假設中建立起來,有點松散地聯系著不一致的理論模型(Donnelly,2000年)。
制度主義是另一種關于國際關系的理論(Walt,1998)。它試圖用理性的思維來解釋事情。最后的結果是主體偏好與制度規則之間的互動。換言之,制度主義是理性選擇的產物。此外,還有一個關于制度主義的學派,它涉及政治結果。該機構有追求權力的動機。
Realism refers to our understanding and perception about objects, and the objects are independent of actual existence of things outside our hearts, and it is also the same as thr thing. Generally speaking, realism cares about reality and rejects idealism actually. Jack Donnelly (1993, pp.85) pointed out that the realism is not only unable to provide a general theory, and it basically is inconsistent, the realists are often inconsistent in the interpretation of the same event. Due to the fact that the reality of the same issue is changing, of course, the explanation is not the same as the realism, otherwise it is not realism. Realism became established in the common theory assumption, a bit of a loose connection of inconsistent theory model (Donnelly, 2000).
And the Institutionalism is another theory about international relations (Walt, 1998). It tries to explain the things with rational mind. And the final result is the interactions between preferences of subject and the rule in the institution. In other words, the institutionalism is the product of rational choice. In addition, there is another school about institutionalism, which involves the political outcomes. The institution has incentive of pursuing power.
Jean Piaget is the first one who proposed the concept of constructivism, and he is the one of the most famous psychologist in the field of cognitive development (Smith et al, 1994). First of all, the theory is applicable in the Children's cognitive development, which was known as the Geneva school. Piaget insisted on materialistic dialectics when explaining his theory and he studied the Children's cognitive development from the interaction between internal factors and external factors (Tudge and Winterhoff, 1993). The constructivism theory can be also used to study the international relation as a reference, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber contributed a lot to the constructivism theory (Palan, 2000). About the concept, and Durkheim and Weber believed that the Kantianism separate the spirit of the world and the whole world, which will be far from the scientific approach. But the pragmatic think that the spiritual life is meaningless, the scientist's mission is to uncover the surface of the material and dig deep into the core of the object. Durkheim also proposed the other ideas, they believed that the concepts have their own characteristics, and it is also a whole, which cannot be reduced to other factors. At the same time, the concept is "natural" which the same as physical reality is. The constructivism is interest in the concept.
2.2 Similarity and difference
In terms of ontology, realism, institutionalism belongs to rationalism. In the realism, the country is defined as a selfish with the method of microeconomics, which mainly defined individual and company. And in the realism, the unicity of rational behavior in international relations, national interests and identity are all the internal factors, which has nothing to do with activities in the international community. Keohane (1989) focused on the position of multiple international actors, and then admitted the existence of rationalism assumption about state actors. However, the constructivism is anti-rationalism. And the constructivism believes that the social structure of international political does not only influence the behavior of the actor, what is more important is that it also influence the identity of the actors and interests (Johnston, 2001).
From the aspect of the world view, realism, institutionalism all accept materialism theory, and both of them does not recognize substantive significance of the concept. The basic concept of realism is the international system structure, which refers to the distribution of national material power in the international system. Although the system in the realism is not material, its function depends on whether the system can provide the material reward or not. Constructivists do not deny the objective existence of materials, but they against the view point that the existence of the substance could explain the behavior and acts as the only and the main reason (Adler, 1997). Constructivism is an idea that the power is mainly constructed by the concept and the cultural context. The significance of the distribution of power is constructed by the distribution of interests to a large extent,extent; what is more, the content of the benefits is constructed by the concept to a large extent. That is to say, the reason that the power and the benefit have the function which they actually have isthat the role of the idea of creating the power and the interest.
Their theories are all adopting scientific positivism epistemology, but the interpretation of these models are different, the realism and institutionalism are the inductive pattern, and the latter one is personalization mode. Inductive pattern means that the researchers will regard event as an example of one kind of things, it is an inevitable thing in an accident. For example, Jack Snyder made the explanations for why the cold war ended in peace. He said that a country's foreign policy is formed by the idea of how to secure their own country.Expansionism doesn't work in a democracy, but it is prevailed easily in the highly centralized political entity; a country's domestic political structure is formed from its schedule of modernization. These are summarized, and explain to them the peaceful evolution of the Soviet Union at the end of the cold war.
3.0 Case study
3.1 Background of the case
It is hot topic that the Britain falls out of the EU. Since the late nineteenth Century, the Britain has been pursuing a policy of non-intervention on Europe, which is called "glorious isolation". And this policy is formed due to some historical and geographical reasons. Britain is not the euro zone countries, and it can issue their own currency. So it is easier for Britain to maintain its export competitiveness with independent financial policy. But it makes it difficult to really participant in the European. Especially in the critical period when there is debt crisis in BU. Due to the different interests, the Britain is gradually losing its status and participation in the EU.
And at the same time, the people of other European Union countries also have growing discontent to British, and believe that the British people are "not reliable" as a member of the European Union, they are negative and always play a role of foot-dragging in the process of European integration. it not only rejects the policy of Euro, but also not to participate in the EU crisis rescue plan, and they do not contribute to alleviate the crisis and against all the financial regulatory policy, so the "out" may be good for the development of the European Union.
3.2 PEST analysis
PEST analysis is a tool for strategic consultants to help enterprises review the concept of external macro environment. Factors of the macro environment are affecting all kinds of industries and enterprises. And the macro environment analysis is different according to their own characteristics and management needs, the basic content of analysis includes Political, Economic, Social and Technological. 


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