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加拿大Reflection Paper作業

時間:2019-04-03 15:56來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
你覺得那些陳詞濫調怎么樣?你認為他們是基于一個基本的、普遍的真理還是他們強加了一個真理的形象?刻板印象和一個人認為應該體現的形象有什么區別?在你對自己的性別理解中,形象有
你覺得那些陳詞濫調怎么樣?你認為他們是基于一個基本的、普遍的真理還是他們強加了一個真理的形象?刻板印象和一個人認為應該體現的形象有什么區別?在你對自己的性別理解中,形象有多重要?
What do you think of stereotypes? Do you think they are based on a basic, general truth or do they impose an image of a truth? What is the difference between a stereotype and an image that a person feels that they should embody? How relevant is image in your own understanding of yourself in terms of gender?
刻板印象是指人們對一個人或一件事物,或頭腦中某類人或事物的固定印象,作為判斷和評價人或事物的基礎的心理現象(Chappetta和Barth,2016)。人們往往將特定的人或物視為某種人或物的典型代表,形成評價標準和印象,然后根據這些標準和印象來評價同一群體的人或物(Hermann和Vollmeyer,2016)。例如,老年人被認為是保守的,年輕人是沖動的,英國人是保守的,美國人是熱情的,等等,刻板印象本身就包含著一定的社會現實,或多或少反映了這一群體的實際情況(Hoyt和Murphy,2016)。因此,使用刻板印象可以簡化我們的理解過程,在一定程度上有助于人們對某物或人做出判斷,節省時間和精力。
Stereotypes refers to the psychological phenomenon that people take a fixed impression about a person or a thing, or a certain kind of persons or things in their minds as the basis to judge and evaluate persons or things (Chappetta and Barth, 2016). People tend to regard a specific person or thing as a typical representative of people or things of a certain kind to form evaluation criteria and impressions, then according to these criteria and impressions to evaluate people or things of the same group (Hermann and Vollmeyer, 2016). For example, the elderly are considered to be conservative, young people are impulsive; the British are conservative and the Americans are enthusiastic, etc. Stereotype itself contains a certain social reality, it more or less reflects the actual situation of this group of people (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016). Therefore, the use of stereotypes can simplify the process of our understanding, which to a certain extent helps people to make a judgment on something or people, saving time and effort.
然而,我不認為刻板印象總是能反映事實的,因為刻板印象的形成往往是基于給予人們有限的物質基礎上的普遍結論,這使得人們在識別他人和事物時忽略了個體差異,從而導致認知偏見和先入為主的思維阻礙了人們對事物的認知。對其他人和事務的評估。人們不僅對所接觸的人和事有成見,而且對所不接觸的人也有成見,這是基于一些不相干的間接信息,影響了他們對這些人和事的正確判斷,如果不及時糾正,就會進一步發展,并被扭曲為歧視。成見傾向于阻止人們看到新的現實和接受新的想法,導致對某些群體和事務的成見。However, I do not think that stereotypes can always reflect facts, as the formation of stereotypes is the universal conclusions often based on the limited material given to people, which makes people ignore individual differences when they identify other people and affairs, resulting in cognitive bias and preconceived thinking to hinder making a proper assessment on other people and affairs. People will have a stereotype towards not only persons and affairs contacted, but also whom they do not contacted with based on some irreal indirect information, thus affecting their correct judgment on these persons and affairs, if it is not promptly corrected, it will further develop and be distorted as discrimination. Stereotypes tend to discourage people from seeing new realities and accepting new ideas, leading to stereotypes about certain groups and affairs.
From the perspective of the formation of stereotypes, first, it is based on direct contact with someone or something to form a fixed impression of the characteristics of people or things; second, it is affected by indirect information to form a fixed impression on the characteristics of people or things (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016). An image that a person feels that it should be embodied is mainly affected by subjective factors, such as his knowledge, cognition and values, and people make their own judgment on people or things that they do not contact with according to their own subjective cognition. The main difference between the two is that the former is mainly affected by objective factors, people make judgments based on direct or indirect objective information, the latter is mainly affected by subjective factors, people take their own knowledge, cognition and values as the criteria to make judgment. In reality, the two can be consistent or inconsistent, and in many cases, the two can not fully reflect the true objective facts.
The formation of stereotypes is affected by traditional culture, advertising, public opinion and many other reasons (Hoyt and Murphy, 2016), there is also a stereotype in my understanding of gender. I am a man, thus my own understanding of men is reflected in the following aspects. Firstly, in Chinese traditional culture, men are responsible for the source of household income, women are mainly responsible for handling domestic affairs and caring for children and the elderly. Therefore, I think that men should work hard more than women, they should have more enterprising and courageous, so as to be able to bear the responsibility to support their families in the future. Secondly, in China's advertising and news, entertainment, men are always tall, robust. Therefore, I also think that men should exercise more, so that they will have a healthy and robust appearance, and I also think that men should be higher than women, so I more believe that to choose a partner, women should not be higher than men. Finally, from the perspective of public opinion, the Western friends have the common stereotype for the Oriental male college students that they are short and weak, they have good academic records and they are shy, do not like sports, etc.( Hermann and Vollmeyer, 2016). I do not deny that the characteristics of what the Western college students think about a considerable number of Chinese students are consistent with the stereotypes, but not all Chinese students are like that. I and my many Chinese friends also love sports, we are also very strong and active in participating in community activities. Our performance and the exchange with local friends have also changed some of Western friends’ stereotypes towards Oriental boys. At the same time, I must admit that my previous stereotypes about women were wrong. In the process of contacting with local friends and classmates, I was amazed to find that women can work independently and aggressively to pursue what they deem to be valuable, like boys do. In short, stereotypes only provide us with a framework and a choice to understand the world, and we can not rely entirely on stereotypes to perceive and look at objective things, otherwise it will lead to deviation in assessment as my previous stereotypes about genders produced based on my perception of women and men.
 
References
Chappetta, K. C. and Barth, J. M. (2016). How gender role stereotypes affect attraction in an online dating scenario. Computers in Human Behavior, 63(10), 738-746.
Hermann, J. M. and Vollmeyer, R. (2016). “Girls should cook, rather than kick!” – Female soccer players under stereotype threat. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 26(9), 94-101. 
Hoyt, C. L. and Murphy, S. E. (2016). Managing to clear the air: Stereotype threat, women, and leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(3), 387-399. 


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