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酒店管理學Literature Review范文-(customer satisfaction)

時間:2019-03-13 12:02來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Customer Satisfaction消費者滿意度 Table of Contents 1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 3 2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction 4 3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model 5 3.1 Expectation and perception gap model 5 3.2 Equity th
Customer Satisfaction消費者滿意度
 
Table of Contents
1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 3
2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction 4
3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model 5
3.1 Expectation and perception gap model 5
3.2 Equity theory model 5
3.3 Attribution theory 5
3.4 Emotion theory 6
4.0 Factors affecting customer satisfaction and hotel countermeasures 6
5.0 Empirical study on customer satisfaction in hospitality industry 7
6.0 Critical analysis 9
7.0 Conclusion 9
References 11
目錄
1.0客戶滿意度的定義3
2.0客戶滿意度的重要性4
3.0顧客滿意度測量理論模型5
3.1期望和感知差距模型5
3.2公平理論模型5
3.3歸因理論5
3.4情緒理論6
4.0影響顧客滿意度和酒店對策的因素6
5.0酒店業客戶滿意度的實證研究7
6.0批判性分析9
7.0結論9
參考文獻11
 
1.0 Definition of customer satisfaction 1.0客戶滿意度的定義
本研究回顧了客戶滿意度的定義和重要性,理論模型,實證研究結果,指出了當前客戶滿意度研究中存在的局限性,為今后的研究提出了方向。
This study reviews definition and importance, theoretical models, empirical research results related to customer satisfaction to note the limitations existing in current researches on customer satisfaction, thus bringing forward directions for future researches.
Assaf和Magnini觀察到,學者們從不同角度提出了對客戶滿意度的各種理解和認識。在學術界,有兩種觀點來定義顧客滿意度(2012,pp.625)。 Homme和Raymond總結說,一種觀點認為客戶滿意度是顧客對購買行為的后期感受,這是消費體驗產生的結果(2013年,第120頁)。正如Howard和Sheth所定義的那樣,客戶滿意度是客戶的一種認知狀態,即他們是否獲得了足夠的報酬(1969年,第318頁)。 Omar,Ariffin和Ahmad認為,當根據消費體驗形成的消費者期望與消費體驗一致時,顧客滿意度就會出現一種情緒狀態(2016,pp.390)。另一種觀點認為,顧客滿意度是消費過程中消費行為的整個過程或之后的評價。正如Keith所說,客戶滿意度是一個由經驗和評估引起的過程(1977,pp.21)。 Westbrook和Reilly進一步表明客戶滿意度是伴隨或購買過程中產生的情緒反應,它是通過產品展示,整體購物環境,產品和服務質量因素對消費者心理的影響而產生的(1983,pp.260 )。 Deng,Yeh和Sung指出,考慮到客戶滿意度的內涵,評估過程是核心部分,它們是從過程的角度來定義客戶滿意度(2013,pp.138)。Assaf and Magnini observed that scholars are from different angles to bring forward a variety of understanding and awareness about customer satisfaction. In academia, there are two types of point of view defining customer satisfaction (2012, pp. 625). Homme and Raymond summarized that one view is that customer satisfaction is customers’ post-feeling towards purchase behavior afterwards, which is a result generated from consumption experience (2013, pp. 120). As Howard and Sheth defined that customer satisfaction is customers’ a kind of cognitive state for whether they obtain a sufficient compensation for what they pay (1969, pp. 318). Omar, Ariffin, and Ahmad argued that customer satisfaction is an emotional state emerged when consumer expectations formed according to consumption experiences are consistent with consumption experience (2016, pp. 390). The other view is that customer satisfaction is the evaluation throughout or after the process of consumption towards consumer behavior. As Keith posited, customer satisfaction is a process arising from experience and assessment (1977, pp.21). Westbrook and Reilly further showed the views that customer satisfaction is an emotional reaction accompanied by or produced in purchase process, it is produced by affecting by product display, overall shopping environment, product and service quality factors on consumers’ psychology (1983, pp. 260). Deng, Yeh and Sung indicated that considering connotation of customer satisfaction, evaluation process is the core part, they are from the perspective of process to define customer satisfaction (2013, pp. 138).
Jiang and Zhang proposed that the first point refers to post-evaluation of customers towards specific purchase behavior, the second view refers to a thorough evaluation of customers carrying out based on the overall purchase and consumption experience (2016, pp. 86). Since the latter takes into account all purchase and consumption experience of customers in consumption process, so it is more basic, more effective definition (Homme & Raymond, 2013, pp. 125). In this study, it tends to define customer satisfaction from consumption process. Rhee and Yang concluded that customer satisfaction is comparison of consumers’ expectations of a process of consumption and their actual consumption experience, so as to determine whether it reaches what they expect (2015, pp.585).
2.0 Importance of customer satisfaction
Jiang and Zhang upheld that profit is proportional to customer satisfaction of a hotel, the higher customer satisfaction there is, the higher customer loyalty there will be, and the time for customers’ consuming in a hotel will be increased, sum of customers’ single consumption in the hotel is likely to be increased, while there is high customer satisfaction to form public praise propagation, attracting a large number of other customers to consume in the hotel (2016, pp.87). And low customer satisfaction will not only lead to loss of profits brought by a customer, but also cause loss of more profit brought by other clients probably because of negative public praise propagation (Omar, Ariffin & Ahmad, 2016, pp. 390). 
Khan, Garg and Rahman commented that customer satisfaction is closely related to a hotel's reputation and image (2015, pp. 271), if products or services provided by a hotel can satisfy customers, the hotel's reputation and image will be greatly enhanced, thus helping the formation of positive word of mouth effect among consumers to improve the reputation of the hotel (Chen, Yang, Li & Liu, 2015, pp. 137).
As Kralj and Solnetdescribed mentioned that improved customer satisfaction will help to maintain good relationships established between a hotel and customers to improve customer loyalty, especially in the situation when there is serious competition in hotel industry currently, by providing high quality personalized services and products to meet consumers’ personalized demand will improve customer satisfaction, which has a special significance for the development of a hotel (2010, pp. 717). At the same time, considering from a marketing point of view, costs for developing a new customer are six times more than costs for keeping an old customer, thus increasing customer satisfaction will help to retain existing customers and thus save large sums of corporate marketing costs and operating costs for a hotel (Ali, Hussain & Ragavan, 2014, pp. 278).
3.0 Customer satisfaction measurement theory model
3.1 Expectation and perception gap model
Lahap et al. concluded, the model describes that before purchase, customers will have expectation for various interests and utility provided by products that they will purchase later (2016, pp.153); after purchase, they will compare the using experience obtained in consuming the products with their expectation formed in advance: when the actual perception and expectation are the same, customers will have a moderate satisfaction; when actual perception exceeds expectation, it will lead to customers’ satisfaction; and when the actual perception can not reach the desired result, it will make customers unsatisfactory (Homme & Raymond, 2013, pp. 123).
3.2 Equity theory model
Omar, Ariffin and Ahmad claimed, whether customers are satisfied with products not only depends on the comparison between expected and perceived quality, but also on whether customers think whether the transaction is fair and reasonable (2016, pp.390). When customers feel that the ratio of utility they get and what they invest is the same as the ratio of product provider, they will feel fair and satisfied. The higher degree of equity there is, the higher customer satisfaction there will be; on the contrary, the degree of equity will be lower, and customers are more dissatisfied (Lee & Heo, 2009, pp. 636).
3.3 Attribution theory
Ren et al. observed that if customer perception towards a product or service is below their expectation, customers are always trying to determine the cause (2016, pp.19). The reason determined has a significant impact on their satisfaction. If customers attribute to a product or service itself, then their satisfaction will be greatly reduced, if customers attributed to accidental factors or customers themselves, the possibilities of their dissatisfaction will be greatly reduced (Su, 2004, pp.403).


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