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英國literature review范文演示:A study on tourism motivation of Chi

時間:2019-04-11 11:58來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Literature review文獻綜述 1 Concept of tourism motivation對旅游動機的認識 旅游動機是推動人們旅游的直接驅動力,受旅游動機的刺激,人們在確定旅游目標后采取行動,使自己的旅游需求得到滿足,從
 Literature review文獻綜述
 
1 Concept of tourism motivation對旅游動機的認識
旅游動機是推動人們旅游的直接驅動力,受旅游動機的刺激,人們在確定旅游目標后采取行動,使自己的旅游需求得到滿足,從而消除了緊張(林、李、王,2012)。Bao(2009)指出,影響旅游動機的因素包括個人心理和個人因素,以及一些外部因素。如果一個人想旅行,他必須同時具備主觀和客觀條件。在主觀上,他必須有旅行的需要;客觀上,他必須有一定的支付能力和休閑時間,以及健康狀況等。研究消費者的旅游動機,是旅游企業全面了解消費者需要什么樣的細分市場,及時向消費者介紹所需要的。f滿足目標市場需求以增加市場滲透的旅游項目(Caber和Albayrak,2016年;Devesa、Laguna和Palacios,2010年)。
Tourism motivation is the direct driving force promoting people to travel, stimulated by tourism motivation, people take action after determine a travel target, making their travel needs satisfied, thus eliminating tension (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). Bao (2009) notes that factor affecting tourism motivation includes individual psychological and personal factors, as well as some external factors. If a person wants to travel, he must have both subjective and objective conditions. Subjectively, he must have a need to travel; objectively, he must have a certain ability to pay and leisure time, as well a health condition, etc. Study on consumers’ tourism motivation is the key for tourism enterprises to a comprehensive understanding of what consumer needs to carry out accurate market segments to provide timely introduction of tourism project to meet the needs of a target market to increase market penetration (Caber and Albayrak, 2016; Devesa, Laguna and Palacios, 2010).
2 Push-pull theory推拉理論
旅游動機理論有驅動理論、喚醒理論、誘導理論、期望值理論、歸因理論和成就目標理論等,推拉理論是最著名的理論之一(Mohamed和Othman,2012)。在這個模型中,推動因素是指由內部不平衡或緊張引起的需求,這是影響人們旅游的內在因素,其內在因素包括逃離日常環境、進行社會交往等(Chen和Chen,2015)。拉動因素與目的地的屬性和特征相關,有影響人們選擇特定目的地的因素,如獨特的自然景觀、歷史古跡等(Bao,2009年)。拉動因素是影響旅行動機的外在因素(Bao,2009年;Seeballock、Munhurrun、Naidoo和Rughoonauth,2015年)。這一理論出現在20世紀70年代,之后得到了學者們的改進,到目前為止,推挽理論已廣泛應用于旅游動機的研究(Caber和Albayrak,2016)。
There are several theories on tourism motivation, such as drive theory, arousal theory, inducement theory, expectancy value theory, attribution theory and achievement goal theory, etc., push-pull theory is one of the most famous theories (Mohamed and Othman, 2012). In this model, the factors pushing refer to needs caused by internal imbalance or tension, which are internal factors affecting people’s going for tourism, the internal factors include escaping from everyday environment, carrying out social communication and so on (Chen and Chen, 2015). Pulling factors link to attributes and characteristics of a destination, there are factors affecting people to choose which particular destination, such as a unique natural landscape, historic monuments and so on (Bao, 2009). Pulling factors are extrinsic factors affecting travel motivation (Bao, 2009; Seebaluck, Munhurrun, Naidoo, and Rughoonauth, 2015). The theory appeared in the 1970s, after that, it has been improved by scholars, up to now, push-pull theory has been widely applied to the study on tourism motivation (Caber and Albayrak, 2016).
3 Travel career ladder theory旅游職業階梯理論
Williams和McNeil(2012)基于馬斯洛的需求層次理論,將旅游動機分為五個等級。一是自我實現:就是要實現一個人的夢想,更好地了解自己,體驗內心的和平與和諧。二是自尊和自我發展:強調發展自己的技能和知識,希望有能力控制一切,受到他人的尊重和創造性。三是人際關系:旅游者要建立和拓展人際關系,積極與他人互動,與他人一起參與活動,分享快樂時光。第四個是刺激需求:游客想要安全,但不應該無聊,他想要刺激,但他不想要真正的危險,他想要樂趣和刺激。最后是放松需求:游客想要休息、恢復、個人護理。他注重基本服務和飲食、衛生、空間,享受暫時脫離日常工作和生活的機會。隨著旅游體驗的增加,人們往往有更高層次的旅游動機。通常,當滿足較低層次的旅游動機時,他們會有較高的動機水平(Williams和McNeil,2012年)。
Williams and McNeil (2012) are based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory to divide tourism motivation into five grades. First is self-realization: it is to achieve the dream of a person to have a better understanding of himself and experience inner peace and harmony. Second is self-esteem and self-development: it is emphasis on the development of his skills and knowledge, hoping to have the ability to control everything, be respected by other people and to be creative. Third is interpersonal relationship: a tourist wants to build and expand his relationships, he actively interacts with others and participate in activities together with others to share happy times. Fourth is stimulation needs: a tourist wants safety but it should not be boring, he wants stimulation but he does not want real danger, he wants fun and excitement. The last is relaxation needs: a tourist wants to get rest, recovery, personal care. He pays attention to basic services and food, sanitary, space, and enjoying the temporary escape from daily work and life. As experience of tourism increases, people tend to have tourism motivation of a higher level. Usually, when their tourism motivation of lower levels is met, they will have a higher level of motivation (Williams and McNeil, 2012).
4 Research on tourism motivation of young people
18-30 year olds people are the mainstream of tourists, a latest survey from World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal shows that among international visitors in the world, young people aged 16 to 25 years old account for more than 20%, the organization also points out that young tourists play a key role in promoting the development of international tourism (Huang and Cai, 2011). Since 1990, young tourist market size enhanced with an annual growth rate of 20% to 25%. World Tourism Organization also points out that young tourist market is the fastest growing tourism market segmentation (Huang and Cai, 2011). In the UK, there is even a tourism enterprise called 18-30-year-old club which dedicates to provide services for tourists of this age group. 18 to 30-year-old club is the first firm tourism enterprise specializing in provision of holiday activities for youth, it already has nearly 30 years of history, its management philosophy is fully in line with young people's behavior way, it helps young people to get to know more friends and provides enriched arrangements for their daily lives, rather than just organizes plain sightseeing tissue activities (Thrane, 2016). 
China's tourists who were born in or after the 1990s (post-1990 generation) have in common with the World Youth tourists, because of its special growing environment, China's post-1990 generation has a certain specificity  It has been found through study that, in the choice of destinations and tourism products, China's post-1990 generation is more susceptible to "fashion factor". Post-1990 generation travels primarily for the pursuit of freedom and happiness, growing up (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). With the emergence of a large number of the tourism group of post-1990 generation and the rapid development of youth tourism market, some new way of travelling and tourism consumer behavior appear, which is related with the psychological characteristics, consumer behavior of post-1990 generation (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). For example, post-1990 generation tend to choose independent travel or half independent travel, they like selecting and arranging travel activities by themselves; or through the network to find friends with common travel interest with them to travel together, and the senior partners will act as team leaders; some tourists of post-1990 generation are introduced via a network or friends to look for tourists with houses, cars in the destinations they want to go, through exchange of using houses, cars with each other in the destinations, they achieve the purpose of savings time and money (Lin, Lee and Wang, 2012). As the spending power of post-1990 generation enhances, consumer motivation of post-1990 generation is quite different from traditional tourists in travel mode, while there are also significant differences in terms of tourism consumption between them, such as the differences in modes of payment for consumption, ways of access to information (Lu, Hung, Wang, Schuett and Hu, 2016). Post-1990 generation have an universal access to information from the network, according to survey from the World Youth Student and Educational Travel Federal, the main way of more than 80% of young tourists’ access to information is the network, especially for the post-1990 generation in China, they are the generation who grow up along with the development of the Internet in China, their frequency of using the network is much higher than other groups (Munar and Jacobsen, 2014). In travelling, post-1990 generation generally buy less souvenirs and more favorite products during their travelling, with the prevalence of credit card spending, the proportion of credit card spending behavior of post-1990 generation in tourism consumption has been greatly improved (Heo and Lee, 2016). There is a certain link between these changes in consumer behavior and the relatively unique consumer psychology, consumer motivation and growth environment, family structure of post-1990 generation.


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