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時間:2019-03-12 15:38來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Case analysis案例分析 Introduction 介紹 首先,與產品制造不同的是,醫院或醫療保健行業由于產品在交換過程中的無形性,應被劃分為服務行業。考慮到服務交付過程中涉及許多要完成的步驟,因
Case analysis案例分析
Introduction 介紹
First of all, unlike product manufacturing, a hospital or the healthcare industry should be categorized into the service sector because of the product intangibility in the exchange process. Given that there is great complexity in the service delivering process involving numbers of steps to complete, the nature of healthcare service should be facility based with high level of service provider-receiver interaction (Greasley, 2013). Therefore, instead of a precise production design, a flexible yet effective service design is required. It needs to be acknowledged by healthcare practitioners that serving a customer in this business is not only to treat a patient, but also to care about their psychological conditions and to ensure a certain level of customer satisfaction. In this case, the medical attendants in Hope Memorial Hospital have clearly failed. 
在重復用藥錯誤的情況下,盡管個人因缺乏對患者病情的溝通而受到指責,但主要原因還是服務提供過程不完整。這一錯誤的過程包括職責分配不清、內部互動不充分以及與客戶缺乏溝通。首先,當客戶意識到藥物清單丟失時,他考慮了可能發生的各種錯誤,但無法確定清單的確切位置。這反映了醫院中一個模糊的責任部門,因為應該有一個人負責記錄病人過去的用藥記錄,或者在急診室中有一個特定的小組負責從救護人員那里接班。第二,護士答應把正確的名單信息傳給下一班。然而,第二天早上,病人仍然被注射了錯誤的藥物,這是兩年前的一份清單。這清楚地反映了錯誤的溝通和工作移交過程。要求有明確和嚴格的規定,所有參與治療過程的醫護人員都應了解一名患者的最新信息。還應提供明確規定的不同班次之間的工作交接標準。由于缺乏客戶溝通,問題主要集中在醫院的投訴系統,下一部分將對問題進行討論。除此之外,還應改進設施布局和產品設計,以便不再出現上傳信息困難等問題(Chase等人,2004年)。總的來說,盡管個別員工的責任推卸加劇了問題,但不完整的服務流程主要促進了有缺陷的服務交付。為了解決這個問題,需要一個清晰的流程圖或服務藍圖,以明確提供物理和機構支持的藥物服務一線和后勤辦公室的責任(Russell&Tyler,2014年;Olideley,2013年)。In the case of repeated errors in medication use, although individuals are to blame for lacking communication about the patient condition, it is still the incomplete service delivering process that mainly contributes to the dispute. This faulted process includes an unclear duty allocation, insufficient internal interaction and lack of communication with customers. Firstly, when the client realized the medication list missing, he thought about various errors that might occur but could not figure out how exactly the list was left. This reflects a vague responsibility division in the hospital since there should have been a person taking the patient’s past medication record or a particular group in the Emergency Room responsible for taking over from the ambulance crew. Secondly, the nurse promised to pass the information of the correct list to the next shift. Yet the next morning the patient was still injected wrong medicine that was from a list two years ago. This clearly reflects faulted communication and work handover process. Clear and strict regulations are required that an information update about one patient should be made known to all medical attendants involved in the treatment process. A clearly defined standard of work handover between different shifts should also be available. Regarding lack of customer communication, the problem mainly lies in the hospital’s complaint system, of which the problem will be discussed in the next part. Apart from the process, facility layout and product design should also be improved, so that problems such as difficulty in uploading information would not occur anymore (Chase, et, al, 2004). Overall, although individual workers responsibility shirking is exacerbating the problem, the flawed service delivery is mostly facilitated by the incomplete service process. To resolve this problem, a clear process flowchart or service blueprint is needed to clarify responsibility of medication service frontline and back office providing physical and institutional support (Russell & Tylor, 2014; Greasley, 2013). 
According to the response from Melanie Torrent, the hospital quality assurance manager, it is highly possible that similar problems would happen again. The indifference to the patient’s well-being and potential danger can be a hidden contributor to severe medical negligence. The repeated confirmation about the patient’s safety currently would not rationalize the malpractice that could have put the patient in danger. This illustrates an incomplete service package where a proper service attitude is in lack (Greasley, 2013). A question of where further complaint should be filed is also important for dealing with hospital malpractice, since the client in this case was clearly not receiving reasonable arrangement from the quality assurance manager. Therefore, a complaint system involving different institutional levels is needed so that mutual control is available to ensure different parties are taking their respective responsibility. In summary, in this case, a more active customer interaction process is needed in order to provide practical resolutions rather than meaningless concerns, otherwise similar problems are likely to happen again. 
In conclusion, in the healthcare industry where the volume (ie, number of patients) and level of standardization (ie, regulated operation process) are both high, it is plausible that continuous production is required, meaning the medical practitioners should keep an attitude of caring and responsible and perform in a professional way continuously (Russell & Tylor, 2014). Apart from the proactive role that should be played by the healthcare provider, to fully eliminate similar problems, combined efforts from regulatory entities and business association are also important.  
Chase, R.B. Jacobs, F.R. and Aquilano, N. J. (2004) Operation Management for Competitive Advantage. 10th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
Greasley, A. (2013). Operations Management, New York: Wiley
Russel, R. S. and Tylor III, B, W (2014) Operations and Supply Chain Management. 8th Edtion. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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