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HRM Coursework本科課程作業:Compare and Contrast the Practices of C

時間:2019-03-14 13:47來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:HRM Coursework怎么寫作?本文講述了集體談判和聯合咨詢體現了員工對企業決策影響的兩種不同觀點和方法。 兩種制度各有利弊,合理利用這兩種制度對改善勞動關系,鼓勵員工參與企業管

導讀:HRM Coursework怎么寫作?本文講述了集體談判和聯合咨詢體現了員工對企業決策影響的兩種不同觀點和方法。 兩種制度各有利弊,合理利用這兩種制度對改善勞動關系,鼓勵員工參與企業管理具有積極作用。

1.0 Introduction引言
隨著組織社會化程度的提高,組織面臨的經營環境復雜且具有競爭性(Kwon、Farndale和Park,2016)。為了維持組織的長期發展,僅僅依靠管理層的決策是不夠的(Constantin和Baias,2015年)。因此,現代學者和企業越來越重視如何發揮員工的智慧和主動性,給予員工參與決策的機會(Venkataramani等人,2016)。他們提出了一系列的理論和法規,如員工聲音理論、集體談判、聯合協商等。本文將對基于員工聲音框架和理論的集體談判和聯合協商的實踐進行比較和對比,以了解這兩種方式如何幫助員工影響管理決策。
With the increasing degree of socialization of organizations, the operating environment that an organization faces is complex and competitive (Kwon, Farndale and Park, 2016). To maintain the long-term development of an organization, it is not enough to rely solely on management's decision-making (Constantin and Baias, 2015). Therefore, modern scholars and enterprises pay more and more attention to how to exert the wisdom and initiative of employees’ and give employees the opportunity to participate in decision-making (Venkataramani et al., 2016). They propose a series of theories and regulations, such as the theory of employee voice, collective bargaining, joint consultation and so on. This essay will compare and contrast the practices of collective bargaining and joint consultation based on employee voice frameworks and theory to understand how these two help employees to influence management decision making.
2.0 Body主體
2.1 Employee voice員工聲音
Venkataramani等人(2016)將員工聲音定義為員工基于協作目的表達與工作相關的意見、信息和觀點。員工聲音包括員工對工作不滿意時表達的觀點,以及在正常情況下提高組織績效的建設性觀點。
員工聲音行為相當復雜,現有的研究主要從以下三個維度進行研究。
康斯坦丁和拜亞斯(2015)根據員工聲音的內容,將員工聲音分為禁止性聲音和促進性聲音。禁止性聲音提出要解決存在的問題,以改善他們,促進性聲音是指員工提出的新的工作模式,以挑戰當前的形勢。
根據員工聲音方式劃分,Kwon、Farndale和Park(2016)將員工聲音劃分為體貼的聲音和攻擊性的聲音。體貼的聲音會考慮到員工自身的利益和組織的利益,而咄咄逼人的聲音更是考慮到個人的利益。
根據動機,Venkataramani等人(2016)將員工聲音分為防御聲音和默許聲音、親社會聲音。防御性發言是指積極提出的自我保護建議,可能對組織不利。默許員工的聲音是對他們觀點的一種消極表達。親社會的聲音是一種積極主動的表達員工的建議,這對組織是有益的。
Venkataramani et al. (2016) define employee voice as employees’ expression of work-related opinions, information and views based on the purpose of collaboration. Employee voice includes views expressed when employees are not satisfied with their work and constructive views under normal circumstances on improving performance of an organization.
Behavior of employee voice is rather complicated, and the existing researches mainly study it from the following three dimensions.
According to the content of employee voice, Constantin and Baias (2015) divide employee voice into prohibitive voice and promotive voice. Prohibitive voice proposed to address the existing problems to improve them, promotive voice refers to new working paradigms put forward by employees to challenge the current situation.
According to the division of ways of employee voice, Kwon, Farndale and Park (2016) divide employee voice into considerate voice and aggressive voice. Considerate voice will take into account employees’ own interests and the interests of the organization, and aggressive voice is more consideration of personal interests.
According to the motive, Venkataramani et al. (2016) divide employee voice into defensive voice and acquiescent voice, prosocial voice. Defensive voice refers to the recommendations put forward actively for self-protection, which may not be beneficial to the organization. Acquiescent employee voice is a negative expression of their views. Prosocial voice is a proactive expression of staff’s suggestions which are profitable for the organization.
2.2 Compare and Contrast of Collective Bargaining and Joint Consultation
2.2.1 Definition
Collective bargaining is defined as that in collective bargaining, it takes an employer, some employers or several employer organizations as a party, taking a or several workers' organizations as the other party to conduct the negotiation based on the following purposes: determining working conditions and conditions of employment; adjusting the relationship between employers and workers; adjusting the relationship between employer organizations and worker organizations  (Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). 
Joint consultation is the practice that employees' representatives and representatives of enterprises are on the basis of laws to negotiate equally on matters such as wage distribution systems, forms of wage distribution, income levels and enterprise management to sign wage agreements (Okpu, and Jaja, 2014).
2.2.2 Similarities
The similarities between collective bargaining and joint consultation include that firstly, purposes of both are to resolve the contradiction between employees and enterprises to coordinate labor relations, both of them give employees the right and opportunity to influence enterprises’ decision-making (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013; Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009). Secondly, there is a low degree of government intervention in the implementation process and results of the two systems, only when the labor disputes involve the public domain, a government will intervene (Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009; Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). Finally, both of them contribute to the coordination of labor relations, workers are given more opportunities to participate in the management of an enterprise, which helps to stimulate the enthusiasm and creativity of laborers to improve labor efficiency, providing a fundamental guarantee for improving enterprise productivity, economic efficiency (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013; Okpu and Jaja, 2014).
2.2.3 Differences
Collective bargaining differs from joint consultation mainly in the following four aspects. First is people involved. Representatives of workers in joint consultation are usually generated through democratic elections (Okpu and Jaja, 2014), while workers' representatives of collective bargaining are usually selected by trade union organizations. Second is about the content of discussion(Berg, Kossek, Baird and Block, 2013). Joint consultation discusses content of a more large range (Holland, Pyman, Cooper and Teicher, 2009). It can often include enterprise development strategies, business decisions, and content related to employee compensation, working hours, benefits, and so on. The content of collective bargaining is usually limited to content related to staff salaries, working hours, benefits, and so on (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013). Finally, the dispute resolutions of the two are different. In the process of joint consultation, the difference between employers and employees will be settled through negotiation, while the dispute in collective bargaining can lead to strikes, shutdowns, downtime and other fierce ways. Finally, considering from the characteristics of communication, joint consultation is not a negotiation decision-making process, but a consultation process (Okpu and Jaja, 2014). It is more emphasis on non-confrontation communication and consultation. Under this mechanism, the labor relations emphasize cooperation rather than confrontation. The opposition of the two sides in economic interests is replaced or weakened by the unity, and enterprises develop becomes the highest interests of both sides. Joint consultation provides a common platform for both employers and employers to formally or informally discuss issues commonly concerned to exchange information and explore ways to solve problems in an organized framework. While in collective bargaining, the two parties are in a relevant legal framework to fight with each other about the organization they work in, staff motivation and participation, as well as the settlement of disputes and a series of work-related contents to maximize their own interests (Jimeno and Thomas, 2013). The core of the bargaining is the game for interests.
Judging from the above analysis, collective bargaining has the characteristics of promotive voice, aggressive voice and the characteristics of defensive voice. While joint consultation has the characteristics of  prohibitive voice, considerate voice and prosocial voice.
3.0 Conclusion
Collective bargaining and joint consultation embodies two kinds of different views and approaches on employees' influence on enterprise decision-making. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantages, rational use of these two systems has a positive effect on improving labor relations and encouraging employees to participate in enterprise management.
 
References
Berg, P., Kossek, E. E., Baird, M. and Block, R. N. (2013). Collective bargaining and public policy: Pathways to work-family policy adoption in Australia and the United States. European Management Journal, 31(5), 495-504. 


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