波叔一波中特图片
代寫 會員中心 TAG標簽
網站地圖 RSS
英國coursework代寫
返回首頁

英國coursework代寫-動機理論Motivation theories

時間:2019-03-19 10:33來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:英國留學coursework范文推薦-全文講述的是在多元文化背景下,由于競爭需求和員工特點的變化,管理者需要采用更人性化的激勵方法和制度。首先,作為企業管理者,要注意滿足員工的高

導讀:英國留學coursework范文推薦-全文講述的是在多元文化背景下,由于競爭需求和員工特點的變化,管理者需要采用更人性化的激勵方法和制度。首先,作為企業管理者,要注意滿足員工的高層次需求和員工對激勵因素的需求,如:尊重員工的個人宗教信仰、民族風俗習慣、重視員工的價值觀、積極與員工溝通、幫助員工成長等。第二,管理者不應忽視滿足員工的低層次需求,他們應該明白,只有滿足員工的低層次需求,他們才會追求高層次的需求。

Motivational theory動機理論
1.0 Introduction引言
激勵是指通過組織設計適當的獎勵和工作環境,并運用一定的行為準則和懲罰性措施來激勵、引導和維護和約束成員的行為,從而有效地實現組織的目標和成員的個人目標的系統性活動。(Akdol和Arikbog,2015年:278-282)。20世紀20年代至30年代以來,許多管理專家、心理學家和社會學家結合現代管理理論的實踐,提出了一系列激勵理論(Tepret和Tuna,2015:673-679),如馬斯洛的需要層次論、雙因素理論、理論X-理論Y等。如今,英國有來自不同的國家和地區要在國內工作,他們的多元文化背景成為當代企業管理者應該考慮的一個重要問題(Hajdukova、Klementova和Klementova,2015:471-476),如何運用激勵理論來管理實際的管理實踐,最終實現雙贏。組織和個人評價是一個非常有價值的研究課題,具有現實意義。本文首先回顧了相關的激勵理論,然后以英國兩家公司為研究對象,對現代企業管理者如何將激勵理論應用于管理實踐提出了建議。
Motivation refers to a systemic activity which is through an organization’s design of appropriate rewards and working environment, as well as using a certain code of conduct and punitive measures to stimulate, guide and maintain and restrain members’ behavior to effectively achieve the organization’s goals and its members’ personal goals (Akdol and Arikbog, 2015: 278-282). Since the 1920s and 1930s, many management experts, psychologists and sociologists combined with the practice of modern management theory to put forward a number of motivation theories (Tepret and Tuna, 2015: 673-679), such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, two-factor theory, Theory X- Theory Y, etc. Nowadays, the United Kingdom contain people from different countries and districts to work in the country, their multicultural backgrounds become an important problem that contemporary corporate managers should take into consideration (Hajdukova, Klementova and Klementova, 2015: 471-476), how to apply motivational theory to manage actual management practices, and ultimately achieve a win-win situation of organizations and individuals is a very valuable research topic with practical significance. This essay first of all reviews relevant motivational theory, then it takes the United Kingdom’s two companies as the objects of a case study, and finally it bring forward recommendations on how modern business managers apply motivation theory to management practice.
2.0 Literature review文獻綜述
2.1 Maslow's hierarchy of needs馬斯洛的需求層次
馬斯洛的需要層次是由著名心理學家馬斯洛提出的。他從內在理論的角度提出,人的需要是多樣的,根據其發生的先后順序,可以分為五個層次:生理需要、安全需要、社會需要、自尊需要、自我實現需要(馬斯洛,1943:96)。只有滿足低級需求,人們才能追求高級需求(馬斯洛,1943:128)。根據馬斯洛的理論,對于管理者來說,他們需要仔細分析和掌握員工需求的層次結構,根據需要找出他們最需要的,建立適當的激勵措施來激發員工的工作熱情(馬斯洛,1943:370)。
Maslow's hierarchy of needs was put forward by famous psychologist named Maslow. He is from the perspective of intrinsic theory to suggest that human needs are diverse, according to the order of their occurrence, they can be divided into five levels: physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1943:96). Only when low-level needs are met, can people pursue needs of high levels (Maslow, 1943:128). According to Maslow's theory, for managers, they need to carefully analyze and grasp the hierarchy of their employees’ needs to find out which they need most, based on the needs to establish appropriate encouraging measures to stimulate staff’s enthusiasm at work (Maslow, 1943:370). 
2.2 Two-factor theory
Herzberg (1959:228) is from the perspective of satisfaction theories to bring forward two-factor theory, it points out that there are two main factors leading to people’s motivation to work: motivate factors and hygienic factors. Hygienic factors refer to the work environment, such as organizational policy, working conditions, relationships, status, security and living conditions (Herzberg, 1959:136). Motivate factors are factors that make employees feel satisfied, they are mostly a work itself, such as achievement, recognition, promotion, growth at work, responsibility, only motivate factors are able to bring a sense of satisfaction, mobilize employees’ work motivation and inspire their work enthusiasm, thereby improving efficiency, and hygienic factors can only eliminate people's discontent and they will not bring satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959:245). Compared Maslow's hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s two-factor theory, it can be found that the motivate factors that Herzberg actually correspond to the high levels of needs in Maslow's" hierarchy of needs. Therefore, in practice, managers should pay attention to meet employees’ high-level needs and attach importance to motivate factors (Pee and Lee, 2015: 679-690). 
2.3 Theory X- Theory Y
However, it is worth noting that motivation and constraint are two indivisible parts of a motivation system, a motivation system with motivators only is inefficient, so the combination of the two is the problem that a manager should think about. Douglas M• McGregor is based on incentive theories to put forward Theory X- Theory Y, which provides a thought on how to solve this problem. Douglas M• McGregor (1957:13) calls traditional management viewpoint Theory X, on the one hand, it depends on the acquisition and stimulation by money, on the other hand, by tight control, supervision and punishment, it force people to work hard for a organization’s goal. Theory Y tells managers that they should respect and believe subordinates, they should provide work conditions and development opportunities for them; they should find a way to motivate and mobilize their enthusiasm for work, so that people's intelligence can be full played to meet individual needs and goals to complete the organization's objectives simultaneously (McGregor, 1957:108).
2.4 Summary
Based on the above review of motivation theories, the author has realized three points. Firstly, two-factor theory suggests that managers should pay attention to the use of incentives to mobilize the enthusiasm of employees’. Secondly, Maslow hierarchy theory suggests that only after the low-level needs are met, people can pursue a high level of needs, and therefore managers should pay attention to meet the high-level the needs of employees, but that it does not mean that they do not need to meet their low-level needs. Finally, considering from the development trend of modern management, it seems that Theory Y is easier to be accepted by most people, it does not mean that Theory Y is very correct and is applicable to any situation; it does not mean that Theory X is completely wrong and useless. In practical management work, the two should be combined and used flexibly according to different situations.
3.0 Case study
3.1 Unilever
In 2014, LinkedIn was based on a number of statistics to release the "world's most popular employer" list, Unilever remained a top employer of choice in the industry (Unilever, 2014). The secret of the company’s success lies in the company's method of using achievement motivation, which greatly motivates their employees. Unilever is ready to progress in 2020 to reach three ambitious goals: to help the world's population of more than 1 billion to improve the health and level of happiness; to halve the negative impact of the company's products on the environment; agricultural raw materials should have 100% of sustainability, while improving the living standards of workers in the supply chain. To make the first line workers understand the company's vision and recognize their value in order to better motivate staff, at the end of 2013, Unilever built an online "social impact centre" for 174,000 employees to allow them to understand what measures the company takes to achieve the goals (Unilever, 2014). Unilever also increases training programs to improve the professional level of employees, and helps employees to know how to promote their own work to achieve business goals. While salaries of employees are linked with the effect of the company’s implementation of its long-term sustained plans.  
3.2 TESCO
TESCO was founded in 1919. It is one of the UK's leading retailers and it has more than 300,000 employees with different cultural backgrounds. In 2008, TESCO topped "Britain's most admired companies" (in the food and drug stores) published by "Fortune" magazine (Fortune, 2008). The magazine believes that in management work, TESCO highlights a humanized characteristic, it pays attention to human resources development and attaches more importance to the training of quality of staff, as well as staff rights protection. For example, in terms of employee communication and employee relation management, TESCO stresses that through a standard and institutional management system, it establishes a business system which allows management to be willing to listen to ideas of employees; considering salaries and benefits, TESCO refines incentives for different positions, pays attention to the strategy of combining material and spiritual rewards together, and it establishes a clear, strict, scientific system of rewards and penalties, as well as performance appraisal system; about training and development, TESCO makes its employee training and development system standardized, systematic, so that employees are clear about the competency requirements of each job and stage; judging from the cultural and atmosphere of the organization, TESCO (2015) insists “We know that looking after our colleagues in a culture of trust and respect is essential to the success of TESCO”, it emphasizes respect for individuals as well as the fairness of the system.


推薦內容
  • 英國作業
  • 新西蘭作業
  • 愛爾蘭作業
  • 美國作業
  • 加拿大作業
  • 代寫英國essay
  • 代寫澳洲essay
  • 代寫美國essay
  • 代寫加拿大essay
  • MBA Essay
  • Essay格式范文
  • 澳洲代寫assignment
  • 代寫英國assignment
  • 新西蘭代寫assignment
  • Assignment格式
  • 如何寫assignment
  • 代寫英國termpaper
  • 代寫澳洲termpaper
  • 英國coursework代寫
  • PEST分析法
  • literature review
  • Research Proposal
  • 參考文獻格式
  • case study
  • presentation
  • report格式
  • Summary范文
  • common application
  • Personal Statement
  • Motivation Letter
  • Application Letter
  • recommendation letter
  • 波叔一波中特图片