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英國大學課程作業范文:組織中的領導力 Leadership in Organizational Settings

時間:2017-07-28 13:20來源:www.uxarrz.shop 作者:cinq 點擊:
本文是英國大學課程作業范文,主要內容是講述領導力的相關內容與定義,并且分析領導力在組織中所起到的影響作用。
領導可以被定義為影響、激勵的能力,使其他人有助于有效的組織和他們的成員成功。勝任力觀點試圖識別有效領導者的特征。領導者可能具有特定的人格特征,如積極的自我概念、正直、激勵、領導動機、業務知識、認知和實踐智力以及情緒智力。除此之外,領導行為的角度確定了兩種類型的領導者行為,以人為本,面向任務的)。權變領導的觀點認為,有效的領導者能夠診斷形勢,并根據形勢調整自己的風格。
在路徑目標模型四種領導風格:指導、支持、參與、成就導向和有關員工的特點和形勢的一些突發事件。根據創始人的說法,還有兩種權變領導理論,包括情境領導理論和菲德勒權變理論。變革型領導創造戰略遠景,通過構建和建立對愿景的承諾來傳達這種愿景。在這個話題中,文化價值觀也影響著領導者的個人價值觀,進而影響著男性或女性的領導實踐。
 
Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence, motivate, and enable other people to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members (McShane, S.l., & Von Glinow, 2010). The competency perspectives try to identity the characteristics of effective leaders. The leaders might have specific personality characteristics, such as positive self-concept, integrity, drive, and leadership motivation, knowledge of the business, cognitive and practical intelligence, and emotional intelligence. Besides that, the behavioural perspective of leadership identifies two types of leader behaviour, people-oriented and task-oriented (McShane, S.L., Von Glinow, M.A., 2012). The contingency perspective of leadership takes the view that effective leader diagnose the situation and adapt their style to fit the situation.
 
There are four leadership styles in path-goal model: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented and several contingencies relating to the characteristics of the employee and of the situation (Bolman &Deal, 1991). According to the founders, there are two other contingency leadership theories include the situational leadership theory and Fiedler's contingency theory. Transformational leaders create a strategic vision, communicate that vision through framing and build commitment toward the vision. In this topic, cultural values also influence the leader's personal values, which is turn influence men or women's leadership practices.
 
1.2 Background of the Company: AirAsia
In this assignment, we try to probe the leadership style of AirAsia. AirAsia is an airline company in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is focusing on low-cost with the dream of making flying possible for everyone. Tony Fernandes, the CEO of the AirAsia, who is the founder of Tune Air Sdn. Bhd. He is the one who introduced the budget no-frills airline. Now AirAsia is the largest low cost airline in Asia. AirAsia group operates scheduled domestic and international flights to over 400 destinations spanning 25 countries. Its main hub is the Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) which is located at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). The vision of AirAsia is to be the largest low cost airline in Asia and serving three billion people who are currently underserved with poor connectivity and high fares. There are four mission of AirAsia: to be the best company to work for whereby employees are treated as part of a big family; to build a globally recognised ASEAN brand; to accomplish the lowest cost so that everyone can fly with AirAsia and sustain the highest quality product, enchanting technology to reduce the cost (Company Profile of AirAsia Berhad, 2013)
 
2.0 CONTENT 內容 
 
2.1 Competency perspective of leadership
Competencies encompass a broad range of personal characteristics, including knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. Personal characteristics significantly influence leadership emergence - the perception that someone is a leader in a leadership situation. (Steven L. McShane, Mary Ann Von Glinow, 2010). Leadership competencies can be grouped into seven categories such as:
 
Emotional intelligence
 
The important attribute of effective leaders. The leader's ability to monitor his or her own and others' emotions, discriminate among them, and use the information to guide his or her thoughts and actions.
 
Integrity
 
Integrity refers to the leader's truthfulness and tendency to translate words into deeds. This characteristic is sometimes called authentic leadership because the individual acts with sincerity.
 
Drive
 
Drive represents the inner motivation that leaders posses to pursue their goals and encourage others to move forward with theirs. Drive inspires inquisitiveness, an action orientation, and boldness to take the company into uncharted waters.
 
Leadership motivation
 
The leader's need for socialized power to accomplish team or organizational goals. Effective leaders try to gain power so they can influence others to accomplish goals that benefit the team or organization.
 
Self- confidence
 
The leader's belief in his or her own leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives. Effective leaders are typically extroverted such as outgoing, sociable, talkative, and assertive, but they also remain humble.
 
Intelligence
 
The leader's above-average cognitive ability to process enormous amounts of information. Leaders have superior ability to analyze a variety of complex alternatives and opportunities.
 
Knowledge of the business
 
The leader's tacit and explicit knowledge about the company's environment, enabling him or her to make more intuitive decisions.
 
2.2 Transformational leadership
Transformational leadership is about "leading" changing the organization's strategies and culture so that they have a better fit with the surrounding environment. Transformation leaders are change agents who energize and direct employees to new set of corporate values and behaviors. They create, communicate, and model a shared vision for the team or organization, and they inspire followers to strive for that vision. Next, Transformational leadership is particularly essential in organizations that require significant alignment with the external environment.
 
There are several elements of transformational leadership:
Create a strategic vision
 
It refers transformational leaders establish a vision of the company's future state that engages employees to achieve objectives they didn't think possible. Strategic vision creates a "higher purpose" or superordinate goal that energizes and unifies employees. A strategic vision might originate with leader, but it is just as likely to emerge from employees, clients, suppliers, or other stakeholders.
 
Communicate the vision
 
It refers transformational leaders communicate meaning and elevate the importance of the visionary goal to employees. They frame messages around a grand purpose with emotional appeal that captivates employees and other corporate stakeholders. Framing helps transformational leaders establish a common mental model so that the group or bring their visions to life through symbols, metaphors, stories, and other vehicles that transcend plain language. Metaphors borrow images of other experiences, thereby creating richer meaning of the vision that has not yet been experienced.
 
Model the vision
 
Modeling the vision is also important because it builds employee trust in the leader. The greater the consistency between the leader's words and actions, the more employees will believe in and be willing to follow the leader.
 
Build commitment toward the vision
 
Build commitment toward the vision which is transforming a vision into reality requires employee commitment. Transformational leaders' words, symbols, and stories build a contagious enthusiasm that energizes people to adopt the vision as their own. Leaders demonstrate a "can do" attitude by enacting their vision and staying on course. Their persistence and consistency reflect an image of honesty, trust, and integrity. Lastly, leaders build commitment by involving employees in the process of shaping the organization's vision.
 
Application
Competency Perspective of Leadership
1. Leadership motivation
 
Toni Fernandes was a leadership motivation leader. He was very accessible to the media was entirely committed to his business. He tries to gain power and influence others to accomplish goals that benefit the team or organization. For example, he wore AirAsia's official T-shirt and office red rap cap to almost every official function and sometimes he will serve the customers on the plane together with employees. (Tony Fernandes, 2012) He had done this action because he wanted to motivate his employees move toward together to achieve the goals. Besides that, Tony Fernandes was an outgoing, sociable and talkative person. He gave his phone number to all the media representatives, and was himself advertisement for his company. Although he was a Group Chief Executive Officer of AirAsia, but he also remain humble in front of others. Because of his personal characteristic and attitude, he was able to achieve their company's objectives and goals. He had became a good example for his employees, so that employees willing to follow him to accomplish the goals.


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